These were required for buildings, crafts, agriculture, their armed forces, financial concerns, art and culture.
Clays and rocks civilizations by opencast mining primarily served for the production of bricks and building blocks, which were used for civil and hydraulic engineering. They were additionally extracted for the manufacture of durable goods and art objects, such as dishes and statues. Metals — like gold, silver, copper, tin, iron and lead — being essential raw materials in antique civilisations, were commonly produced by underground mining.
Gold and silver were mining used as raw material for ancient coins. The mining of noble metals in monetary economy has been going on since the seventh century BC, when barter trade was successively replaced by civilizations monetary economy.
Copper, tin and iron was mostly produced for the manufacture of arms, civilizations lead was, among other things, used for the production civilizations water conduits and as a stain for ornamental painting. Some examples for the use of mining Ancient techniques used for the mining of raw materials Sufficient supplies of metallic and mineral raw materials required systematic mining, since only gold was found in large enough amounts in washes of brooks and rivers to make panning worthwhile.
Other metals usually occurred as chemical components of ore minerals, which were found in regionally varying concentrations in loads ancient stocks. Then, where the ore loads and stocks cropped out, raw materials could be produced by mining mining, using special tools for exploiting or cutting the rocks and high-temperature furnaces for separating valuable minerals from the ores.
On the other hand, civilizations the civilizations deposits were positioned deep below the earth surface, exploitation of the raw materials could take place only by underground mining. Continue reading